Added: Catherine Tomberlin - Date: 14.01.2022 22:43 - Views: 44259 - Clicks: 5008
There has been a recent shift in the field of sexual health, representing a move away from biomedical concerns to sexual rights frameworks. However, few studies on sexuality are based on a rights framework. The unspoken nature of sexuality in Iranian culture has led to a lack of national studies on the topic.
The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of married Iranian women on sexual rights in their sexual relationships. In this grounded theory study, 37 participants 25 Adult sex dating Iran women, 5 husbands, and 7 midwives were selected. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and analyzed through open, axial, and selective coding using MAXQDA software version However, after nearly two decades of formal recognition of sexual rights at international conferences, it has remained subordinate to reproductive rights.
Possible reasons for this include the fact that sexual rights are commonly seen as a subset of reproductive rights and considered a more sensitive issue [ 56 ]. Efforts are now being made to change this. Reproductive and sexual health and rights were at first excluded from the MDGs, but the United Nations UN later acknowledged their importance in achieving the goals partly due to pressure from WAS [ 6 ]. The development of sexual rights requires a greater focus on both its medical and its social aspects.
Although the shift from biomedical concerns to sexual rights frameworks has been initiated, there is now a need for studies on sexuality that apply such frameworks [ 910 ]. In Iran, the majority of studies on sexual rights have focused on its negative aspects such as problems and diseases; the positive aspects including pleasure and fulfillment have been largely ignored. Additionally, the dominant research approach used in these studies has been based on positivist paradigms [ 11 — 17 ].
A small of qualitative studies have been conducted on perceptions of sexuality and sexual experiences in Iranian immigrants in the United States, Sweden, Australia, and Canada [ 18 — 22 ]. It seems that the lack of qualitative studies around sexual experiences both inside and outside the country is at least partly due to the unspoken nature of sexuality in Iranian culture. Thus, the right to consensual sexual relations, the right to pursue satisfying and pleasurable sex, and the right to the expression of sexual desire inside marriage make up the key elements of the sexual rights of individuals [ 5 ].
Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the perceptions and experiences of married Iranian women about these aspects of sexual rights in their sexual relationships. A grounded theory approach was used in this study. To our knowledge, the perceptions and experiences of married Iranian women regarding sexual rights are an Adult sex dating Iran subject and not ly highlighted in the literature. According to Iranian health policy, midwives, as counselors, provide sexual counseling for women in these centers. A total of 37 participants took part in this study: 25 married women whose ages ranged from 19 to 50 years with a mean age of Married women who spoke Persian and lived with their husbands were recruited for the study.
Women were excluded if they were involved in the divorce process, did not live with their husbands, or did not consent to participate in this study. Maximum variation was considered via the selection of participants of various ages, educational levels, marriage duration, of children, and occupational status. This was followed by theoretical sampling a process to examine and their relationships and to assure that representativeness exists [ 27 ]according to the codes and that emerged.
First, data collection was conducted via in-depth interviews with married women. Thus, the researchers interviewed husbands and midwives as key informants to improve the theoretical sampling requirements. Once the consent of the participants was obtained, the participants were interviewed face-to-face.
Interviews were arranged at a venue most convenient for the participants. To collect data face-to-face, semistructured interviews using an interview guide were conducted. Because of the ambiguity and unfamiliarity of the sexual rights concept, the direct questioning of participants was not possible. Therefore, at the beginning of each interview, participants were asked to explain their own feelings and perceptions about their sexual life.
Once participants felt more comfortable talking about this sensitive issue, they were asked related questions such as how they act to express their sexual needs and desires, how they deal with problems in their sexual life, how they became involved in sexual relationships that they did not want, and what conditions affect their behavior in such situations.
The interviews continued with probing questions based on the responses of participants. Each interview lasted between 60 and 90 minutes and was recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data collection and analysis were carried out simultaneously. In open coding the process of line-by-line analysis of interview transcripts to reveal and identify concepts and their properties and dimensions in the data [ 27 ]transcripts were read repeatedly and coded line-by-line. The codes were then compared constantly within and between interviews, and then similar codes were grouped together in. In this stage, codes, Adult sex dating Iran sub, and four were developed.
In selective coding the process of integrating and refining the theory [ 27 ]the integration of main into a unified theoretical explanation and the identification of a core category were conducted using techniques such as writing a story line, making integrative diagrams, and reviewing and sorting memos. In the final stage, the theoretical scheme was outlined and reviewed for internal consistency and gaps in logic.
Poorly developed were filled and the scheme was validated through its comparison with the raw data.
To ensure credibility, various methods including prolonged engagement with participants, writing memos, member checking, and peer debriefing were used. We benefited from data source triangulation with a theoretical sampling of midwives and husbands. Furthermore, the contribution of researchers from different disciplines allowed the exploration of phenomenon with multiple lenses and enhanced the credibility of the analysis.
Throughout the analysis, the consistency of the findings and dependability of the data were promoted by having several researchers who independently coded sets of data and then met to reach consensus on the emerging codes and.
Two of the authors Roksana Janghorban and Robab Latifnejad Roudsari agreed on the way the codes and were labeled and categorized; in later stages, these were verified by the other three authors Ali Taghipour, Mahmoud Abbasi, and Ilsa Lottes. Confirmability was achieved through separate coding by the first and second authors, whereby similarities and differences were discussed.
Consensus on codes and sub was thereafter achieved. All authors read, discussed, and agreed on the final categorizations. To ensure transferability, findings were checked and confirmed with a group of women who did not participate in the Adult sex dating Iran study. We tried to document the decision trail of the research in a way that would enable other researchers to follow the research process and establish confirmability.
After a full explanation of the research project, informed written consent was sought from all participants. The confidentiality and anonymity of the participants were preserved. The right to refuse to answer or to withdraw from the study at any time without prejudice was given to all participants. This study developed a theoretical scheme for the perceptions of sexual rights held by married Iranian women. Four major were identified in this process: adopting a strategy of silence, trying to negotiate sex, seeking help, and sexual adjustment.
The core category represents the main theme of the research [ 27 ]. Women described their sexual interaction as a process that occurred through several interrelated strategies but placed all under the umbrella of silence. In the early stages of marital life, women experienced the dynamism of a sexual relationship and encountered sexual concerns as the causal conditions for the phenomenon of sexual interaction that occurs in the context of gender differences, perceived social norms, sexual rights expectations, and social status.
Participants applied a of strategies for handling the phenomenon. Women often adopted more than one strategy simultaneously. Nearly all women adopted a strategy of silence in terms of expressing their sexual needs and desires at various times in their sexual life, especially in the early stages of marriage. Some then tried to shift their strategy from one of silence to negotiation, seeking help, or sexual adjustment.
Women changed these various strategies in their sexual life many times and selected the strategy most appropriate to their situation and even recommended it to other women. Although this process was part of the phenomenon of sexual interaction in the shadow of silence, some strategies had priority over others. None of the strategies followed a chronological pattern; instead they had circular patterns.
It is notable that the degree of silence varied from one strategy to another in the process. For instance, the husbands commented that the strategy of silence caused them the greatest concern because the degree of silence adopted by their wives was so high. The perception formed from a comparative inference that women made between expected and actual rights in their sexual life Figure 1. One of the first and most common strategies that most women selected to reflect the dynamic nature of their sexual relationship and sexual concerns, as a causal condition, was adopting a strategy of silence.
This strategy was applied through various actions including sexual secrecy and maintaining privacy, as discussed below. Sexual Secrecy.
Women stated that they did not talk about their sexual moods, concerns, and feelings with their husbands because of shame, fear of wounding their pride, creating doubt about their chastity, the fear of being labeled as having an excessive sexual drive, and the fear of receiving a negative answer.
Their actions originated from their understanding of gender differences in spelling out their needs and the societal norm perceived by women—the internalization of sexual impassiveness. Another participant considered that asking for sex might make her husband think that she had premarital sexual relationships, which are frowned upon in traditional Iranian culture.
Maintaining Privacy. Women maintained their privacy regarding any problems in their sexual relationships, constrained by norms such as the taboo of discussing sex and the belief that sex is a private matter. They set a boundary regarding their privacy so that even the closest family members such as their mothers and sisters were shut out. I never talk about my sexual relationship. Over time, some issues led women to change their strategy of silence to one of sexual negotiation, which they recognized as an expected sexual right.
Meanwhile, my husband Adult sex dating Iran me that I could want him. He totally changed my mind towards sexual relationships. Verbal Sexual Disclosure. Although women believed in saying the unsaid, the right of mutual enjoyment in a sexual relationship, and the right to express their sexual needs, they found it difficult to have conversations with their husbands about their sexual likes and dislikes or to refuse sex.
I think that this is my right. Well, when I need it, I have to wait till my husband suggests it to me. Why some women ignore it might be because of pride or shame and modesty or an unawareness of their rights and needs. This is both a right and a need that is achievable.
Woman 8, 50 years old, length of marriage: 30 years. Nonverbal Sexual Disclosure. Shame and the internalization of modesty led to nonverbal communication regarding sexual likes and dislikes or to refuse sex. Nonetheless, the meaning was obvious and understandable by the spouse via behavioral expression and body language. But I might put on a lot of make-up that night or change my clothes. I wear something that my husband loves. He then sees my desire himself.
Woman 5, 25 years old, length of marriage: 7 years.Adult sex dating Iran
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